Manual Expert advice for policy choice: analysis and discourse

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Expert Advice for Policy Choice: Analysis and Discourse (American Governance and Public Policy) [Duncan MacRae, Dale Whittington] on
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Jason Jolley. State options for improving the cultural competency of physicians in caring for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people Theodore Dennis Muhlhauser. A Bayesian approach to cost estimation for offshore deepwater drilling projects Evans Akwasi Gyasi. Fish for Dinner? Karen Rideout , Tom Kosatsky. Can I get a copy? Can I view this online? Ask a librarian.

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Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other First Nations people are advised that this catalogue contains names, recordings and images of deceased people and other content that may be culturally sensitive. Book , Online - Google Books. Preparatory Advice 2. Selecting Criteria 3. Listing Alternatives 4.

The Art of Good Political Discourse - Poon Singhatiraj - [email protected]

Policy Models 5. Considering Multiple Parties 7. Comparing and Combining Dimensions of Decision Matrices 9. Policy sciences. In fact, even though the pronoun we is not present, the voices of the authors are present throughout the text; person manifestation may be mapped by other devices such as adverbs, connectives, modal verbs, pronouns. In addition, the text contains a high number of epistemic modifiers such as modal verbs like may 13 occurrences , might 1 , could 11 and would These verbs may convey quite different semantic content, but also the epistemic value of toning down the propositional content of the sentence in which they occur, marking some kind of hesitation.

In the present context, this may be considered as an example of polyphony, where the authors add their point of view as a comment to the un-nuanced and underlying point of view, which may exist within the actual scientific community. Thus we have an internal discussion, with expressed uncertainty. In a very simplistic way, we may say that this approach is based on a conception of language as fundamentally dialogic, presenting itself as an alternative to the established idea of the uniqueness of the speaking subject inspired by sources as different as Bakhtine and Ducrot The ScaPoLine theory may be used to clarify complex multi-voiced sequences with both explicit presence of different points of view as in citations and different kinds of reported speech and implicit presence signalled by various markers.

In the polyphonic analysis these are treated as points of view pov , and example 8 can be linguistically analysed as follows, in four povs:. A further interpretation would have to consider who the responsible sources of the expressed points of view are. Given the context of the IPCC work, this but- construction could be interpreted as a reflection of an internal polyphonic exchange of pov.

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There are different voices because of different research results and because of different kinds of uncertainties. The first pov has as its source some specific results and the second other results. It is nevertheless important to note that what matters here and now for the speaking voice is the proposition introduced by but.

A toolbox for analysing political texts

In 8 , the IPCC official voice refutes that more rapid sea level rise can be excluded. This indicates that some researchers may have postulated that it can be excluded. A further direct relevance for the present analysis is that the identification of such markers and voices can make the analyst sensitive to relevant contextual factors and thus be a good starting point for a broader socio-political analysis of the text.

However, even though we observe these traces of different voices, we may sum up the analyses undertaken in 2. Climate change text and talk come in many varieties and genres, through different channels and voices: scientific reports and research papers, news media articles, political manifestos and speeches, NGO programmes, White Papers, blogs, social media discussions and individual personal stories — with multiple actors involved.

How do these actors, from different institutional contexts, construct linguistically and discursively their climate policy?

Expert Advice for Policy Choice: Analysis & Discourse - Semantic Scholar

Hereafter: HDR. Hereafter: WDR. They are reports published by the large institutions of the World Bank and the UN Development Program UNDP , organisations that aim at reaching out to large publics: experts, policymakers and media, but also to ordinary citizens. As mentioned above, they come in many varieties and genres, and often represent hybrids of scientific, political and other voices where different genres are mixed. However, the claim I make here is that these documents can be considered to be part of what could be called climate change narratives. In addition, different characters or actors are involved, such as nature, humans, society, countries, assuming the roles of hero, victim or villain.

Ethical perspectives may also be included. Here I return to the classical structure of a narrative studied mostly in literary or fiction contexts , which has been discussed since ancient times. However, different approaches tend to agree that there are five main components see for example Adam , I will not go further into a discussion of the narrative structure here, but just give an illustration through a made-up but nevertheless realistic example:. Complication: CO 2 emissions have increased dramatically since and have caused serious climate change. Outcome Resolution : But the negotiating countries have not reached any binding agreement of measures to undertake.

Final situation: Climate change constitutes a serious threat to the Planet and future generations, and those who have contributed least to the problems are the ones most vulnerable to the consequences.

The starting point for both documents is the recognition that those who have contributed least to climate change are the ones who are most vulnerable to the consequences, which may be interpreted as both the initial situation of a narrative and a moral component. There are no clear heroes, but in a very general way we may say that the rich countries are presented as the villains and the poor countries as the victims:. But, poor countries and their citizens will pay the highest price for climate change.

HDR: 3.

WDR: 1. In fact, both texts focus on the causes of climate change in their initial situation description, but differ in how the rest of the schema is developed: While HDR seems to focus mainly on the complication and evaluation components, WDR has its main focus on the re- action component. The main focus of the report thus seems to be moral responsibility. Tomorrow, it will be humanity as a whole that faces the risks that come with global warming. HDR: 2, 6. It seems reasonable to interpret the main message of this report as the necessity to promote growth in order to reduce poverty 27 occurrences of the word growth :.

WDR: 7. The WDR also demonstrates a firm belief in technology, ingenuity, and innovation. This political document also has a story to tell. The narrative analysis revealed a complex plot, where South Africa is portrayed as both villain and victim.

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However, the government attributes the clearest role to itself. Both internationally and domestically it constructs itself as the hero of its own narrative, which should not come as a surprise in this kind of political document. Governments are of course heroes of their own white papers — a trait which is important to the understanding of these documents. This duality represents all in all an ambiguous message to the Norwegian public. It remains to study to what extent this ambiguity leads to the indifference and lack of engagement currently observed in the climate question.

However, the narrative is only a frame. To understand what is really said, we have to move from the macro- to the micro-level, and undertake in-depth studies of linguistic features.

Muddling through meanings: doing discourse analysis in health policy research (part 2)

There are many features which are obviously relevant to climate discourse: expressions of epistemic, deontic and axiological modality, adverbial expressions or different types of hedging , connectives, pronouns, lexical choices, metaphors, reported speech. I mentioned some of these in the analysis of the IPCC summary section 2 , to a large extent realised through a polyphonic or multi-voiced perspective. Multiple voices are introduced in the climate change debate, at a macro-level by the different institutions, actors and stakeholders, but also at a micro-level by different voices within the particular narratives.

This represents a specific dilemma for the IPCC, which is expected to reflect differing viewpoints and at the same time present one consensual view.